M. Deschamps - Director
of Terminology and Abbreviations
England, TIMES, 17 January 1966, page 10
WATCHED FOR SPACE OBJECTS
FROM A STAFF REPORTER
has been kept recently for unidentified objects in the sky.
Many sightings have been reported of objects which cannot
be explained as satellites.
British branch of the International Sky Scouts, a youth
organization formed about eight month sago to foster interest
in astronomy and train sky observers, have been operating
in small groups in various parts of the country.
are looking particularly for cigar-shaped or golden spherical
objects. The watch will continue whenever the scouts have
were four sightings in December: on December 5 at 10 p.m.
over Enfield; on December 10 at 9 p.m. in the same area;
on December 19 at 5 p.m. over Epping; on December 27 at
5:30 a.m. over Hampton.
increase in objects has been reported at times when the
Americans or Russians have launched satellites. The Sky
Scouts keep themselves up to date on the position of known
satellites and track them when possible. They need this
information to distinguish the satellites from the mysterious
of the objects have appeared on several occasions in different
parts of the sky. One spherical object has been nicknamed
:Tinkerbelle" because it does not seem to follow any
normal orbital pattern but appears to move around haphazardly
the Sky Scouts are not observing the skies they study astronomy,
discuss photographs of unexplained objects, and learn about
electro-magnetism. The mysterious objects apparently seem
to possess strong electro-magnetic properties. According
to the Sky Scouts animals get excited when they are about
and car engines are known to have been stopped.
Brinsley Le Poer Trench, chairman of the International Committee
of the International Sky Scouts, has arranged an international
"flying saucer spotting day" on June 24, the anniversary
of the sighting in 1947 which started speculation about
the existence of visitors from outer space. On that day
observers from Britain, Canada, the United States, Austria,
east and west Germany, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, Argentina
and Venezuela will be keeping watch on the skies.
England, TIMES, 20 January 1966, page 13
Search of Flying Saucers
By Dr. Allen Hynek
Hynek, an American astronomer, is adviser to the United
States Air Force on reports of unidentified flying objects.
long ago passengers on a trans-oceanic flight were thrown
from their seats - some had their ribs broken - late one
night when their pilot, a man of many years' flying experience,
violently swerved to avoid collision with an extremely bright
object that he thought was heading directly for his aircraft.
The United States Air Force later made a positive identification
of the object, which turned out to be an extremely bright
meteor, technically known as a fireball, or bolide.
was no doubt about the identification. Several other aircraft
in the general area, but hundreds of miles or more apart,
reported by radio their sighting of the same fireball. From
these reports the Air Force investigators were able to plot
the exact position of the meteor at the moment when the
pilot took evasive action. He was more than 30 miles away
Flying Objects (U.F.O.s - popularly known as Flying Saucers)
exist - but in most cases, as in this example with the pilot
of an airliner, they are later identified. Often sober,
intelligent citizens, themselves generally not previously
acquainted with or particularly interested in the subject
of U.F.O.s are suddenly confronted with a phenomenon they
cannot explain. Some of these citizens report the incident
officially. Often they are moved to report their sighting
from a sense of duty.
reports, if made to the United States Air Force, must, by
Air Force regulations, be regarded seriously and investigated
as far as circumstances permit, regardless of by whom the
report has been made. Experience has shown that hoaxing
and totally irresponsible reporting is relatively infrequent.
Most often, reports are generated by sincere but technically
untrained, inexperienced observers who, taken by surprise,
are easily but honestly puzzled by ordinary objects - aircraft,
birds, balloons - seen under unusual or unexpected circumstances.
Less often, but frequently enough, fairly well technically
trained people make reports that are especially deserving
of attention, most of which the Air Force experts can explain.
There remain a few that cannot be accounted for.
U.F.O. reports have surprising origins. Last November the
United States Air Force received reports of an object from
separate pairs of witnesses - one pair playing golf in the
late afternoon on a golf course near Chicago, and the other
pair high above them in a helicopter used to report rush-hour
traffic conditions on the highways below via a local radio
station. The golfers looked up into the overcast sky and
reported seeing a saucer-shaped object, topped with a dome,
with lighted portholes around the perimeter of the oval
shape, cruising across the still-daylight sky. Then they
saw a jet aircraft in pursuit of the U.F.O., whereupon the
object rose and disappeared into the clouds.
the same moment, it was later learnt, the traffic helicopter
pilot broke his regular traffic news broadcast over radio
station W.G.N. in Chicago to report: "There's something
funny up here", and to say that he was going to go
after it. He gave chase, driving his craft "almost
into the ground, as he put it, in the attempt. At this point
the brief public traffic broadcast ended, and Air Force
investigators did not learn until later that the helicopter
had actually come close enough to the U.F.O. to identify
it, or rather, in this case, to allow it to identify itself.
As the helicopter cut across the path of the object its
lights flashed on and off to make a readable pattern, a
message: "Learn to Fly at Palwaukee." The U.F.O.
was in fact an advertising aircraft carrying a flashing
electric sign beneath its fuselage. And the jet the golfers
had reported, this was merely the helicopter giving chase.
People can be poor reporters!
years ago the Lubbock lights were a celebrated U.F.O., much
publicized in the United States. Several Texas professors
were wont to gather in the cool of an evening outside one
of their homes, on the patio, and engage in general discussions,
often lasting until well after dark. Their eyes thus became
well attuned to the dark. On several successive nights they
were startled to see a V-shaped pattern of dim lights cross
an appreciable portion of the sky, and then suddenly disappear.
Lubbock lights remained a celebrated mystery, even to the
professors, until one of them, about a year later, tried
an interesting experiment. He flew a kite at night at the
place of the original sighting, attaching bits of white
paper to the string as he played it out. As each paper reached
a certain height, it suddenly began to glow. The reason
was soon evident. Above that height, the papers caught the
glow from some mercury-vapour street lights. The professor
had been protected from the glow by large trees.
lights in V-shape formations were identified, with the aid
of binoculars, as migrating birds. Like the paper on the
kite, the white underparts of the birds caught the mercury
for each truly but temporarily mysterious case there remain
one or more equally mysterious unsolved cases. A good example,
both of the high calibre represented by some of the witnesses
and of the mysteriousness of the occurrence, is what might
be called the Case of the Puzzled Anthropologist.
graduate student in anthropology at the University of Wisconsin,
his wife and her mother and young sister were driving along
a sparsely travelled country road. Suddenly, almost directly
ahead of them, they saw coming towards them the lights of
what they first imagined might be an airliner about to crash.
They seemed to be more or less on a direct line with the
oncoming lights. The young girl, sitting in the back seat
of the car, became so frightened that she fell to the floor
of the car, covering her face with her hands. But as the
lights came closer they slowed down to a hovering position
almost alongside the car and seemed to be centred some 100
yards to the left.
lights appeared to be in formation, as though attached to
some mechanical structure, but no tangible craft was visible.
The apparition was entirely soundless. There were four red
lights placed as though at the vertices of a rectangle,
and one white light "in front" of the four red
lights. When moving, the lights proceeded in a swinging,
gliding motion. The lights appeared to be widely separated,
as two were viewed from above the telephone wires alongside
the road, and the rest from below. The lower lights seemed
to hover just above the ground.
object then passed to the rear of the moving car. The driver
found a convenient spot to stop the car and turn about,
turning off his headlights momentarily. The lights now glided
farther away, in the direction from which the car had come.
The student and his family started after the receding lights,
but even though they exceeded the speed limit they were
unable to overtake their U.F.O.
was it? A helicopter immediately suggests itself, but its
apparent size and total lack of sound contradict this explanation.
It would also be foolhardy to operate a helicopter on a
dark night so close to the ground and to telephone wires
without landing lights. Was it a mirage? There were four
witnesses, and the experience was a frightening one to all,
especially to the young girl. A "mass hallucination"
observers were obviously intelligent people who would far
prefer to accept a rational, terrestrial explanation for
their experience than to be numbered among flying saucer
buffs, but the Air Force has not been able to furnish an
adequate explanation for this case. Perhaps if it had been
possible to make immediate and extensive inquiries in the
area, other witnesses might have been found whose additional
evidence might have removed this case from the "unidentified"
Air Force will continue to investigate all reports it receives
- it still gets more than one report a day, and most of
them from solid citizens and even technically-trained men.
So far I have come across no convincing evidence that any
of these mysterious objects come from outer space or from
other worlds. I have recommended to the Air Force that a
panel, including sociologists and psychologists, should
examine the growth of rumour. Possibly the study of some
of the people who report the sighting of U.F.O.s would be
more rewarding than the investigation of what they saw.
England, TIMES, 22 January 1966, page 9
- My friend Dr. Hynek is rightly playing it safe today;
but it should be said for the record that he does not receive
more than a very small proportion of the world's sightings
to assess; and in his article on Unidentified Flying Objects
he does not mention radar or photographic evidence.
have recently had placed in my hands a most remarkable piece
of photographic evidence, allied with reliable evidence
from witnesses. What this is evidence of, I am not going
to hazard a guess. Historians do not like sticking their
necks out either.
colleague of mine, Miss Jacqueline Wingfield, was driving
a young Danish friend (Miss Mortensen) along a road near
Cappoquin, Ireland, on December 26, 1965. It was a perfect
day, with a clear blue sky, and the time was between 3.15
and 3.30. Miss Mortensen suddenly caught sight of a strange
object moving steadily across the sky in front of them;
Miss Wingfield immediately stopped the car (and the engine)
and they both got out with their cameras. Miss Mortensen
had time to take one shot.
was a solid-looking rounded object, flying in complete silence
from right to left, with a trailing plume of flame-like
brightness at its stern; but there was no smoke trail, or
any other trace behind the "plume". When they
brought the film back, I was at a loss to know how to get
the job reliably done.
another friend, Mr. Percy Hennell - a photographer of world
repute - came into my office shortly after, and generously
offered to handle the whole business personally in his own
will be seen from the photograph reproduced here that the
U.F.O. itself is disc-shaped, and that it seems to be emitting
a huge semi-elliptical efflux.
Hennell's report - which I will make available to anyone
interested - includes the following: there is a pronounced
granular effect seen in the efflux of the U.F.O. which is
radically dissimilar to the grain of the photographic emulsion,
which must therefore have been inherent in the image which
entered the camera, and be part of the U.F.O. ensemble.
Hennell tells me that he has never seen such a phenomenon
before, and that it can have nothing to do with any part
of the photographic material, or process. He also says that
the similarity to a cloud is fortuitous. No cloud, when
blown along, preserves its configuration for more than a
second; it is continually changing.
important, the granulation within the efflux could not be
that of a cloud captured on the emulsion; if it had been
a cloud, the granulation of the emulsion would have been
constant throughout the area, and its surroundings to the
edge of the negative.
I close by saying that, after having been shown many photographs
of U.F.O.s I have never until now been able personally to
vouch for every stage of the process. There is no possibility
of faking, either before or after the take; and Mr. Hennell
would invite any authority on photographic chemistry to
examine the negative, where he will find no trace of treatment
CHARLES H. GIBBS-SMITH
The Royal Aero Club, 9 Fitzmaurice
Place, W.I. Jan. 20.
England, TIMES, 23 March 1966, page 11
FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT
YORK, MARCH 22
police and civil defence officials have opened an investigation
into reports of an aircraft, with four sister craft, which
about 40 people claim to have seen over a swamp at Ann Arbor
on Sunday night. They include 12 policemen, and their descriptions
Frank Mannor, who claims that he and his son were able to
run to within 500 yards of the object, described it as shaped
like an American football, about the length of a car, and
with a greyish-yellow surface pitted like coral rock. He
said there was a blue light on one end and a white light
on the other, pulsating and with a little halo round them.
Mannor, a farmer, said that the object did not appear to
touch the ground but settled on what seemed to be "a
base of fog". No trace of disturbance was found on
the ground yesterday.
descriptions came from policemen, businessmen, teachers
and other solid citizens.
England, TIMES, 24 March 1966, page 17
FLYING OBJECT INVESTIGATED
FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT
YORK, MARCH 23
United States Air Force has called in its scientific consultant
on unidentified flying objects, Dr. Allen Hynek, to investigate
the "flying football" reported from Ann Arbor,
Michigan, on Sunday night. A civil defence director and
an assistant dean and 87 undergraduates of Hillsdale College,
near Ann Arbor, have now reported seeing a "glowing
object" fly past a dormitory window and hover over
a swamp for hours. Fifty other people also reported seeing
William van Horn, director of civil defence for Hillsdale
County, said the object was "definitely some kind of
vehicle", which appeared through binoculars as either
round or oblong. He said that it dimmed its lights when
police cars came near, brightened when they went away, and
dodged the beacon light of an airport.
Hynek, who recently recorded his many years' experience
of investigating unidentified flying objects in an article
in The Times, is director of Dearborn Observatory
at North Western University, Evanston, Illinois. He has
set up temporary headquarters at an air force base at Mount
Clemens, near Ann Arbor.
England, TIMES, 11 April 1966, page 5
SAUCER' ON FILM
FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT
of Defence experts are expected to visit Helmshore this
week to see a film of an unidentified flying object.
was taken 16 days ago from an aircraft 9,000 ft. above Staffordshire
by Mrs. Joan Oldfield, of Helmshore, who was flying with
her husband from Manchester to Southampton.
Oldfield saw what she thought was another aircraft and asked
her husband for his ciné camera. She said: "It
was near the tail and I definitely noticed windows. I did
not think I had got any shots but when the film was developed
we were amazed to see what looked like a flying saucer."
was shown the 8 mm. colour film today at the Oldfields'
cottage. The grey, cigar-shaped object appears perfectly
clearly from the right of the picture. Above and below each
end are pairs of fins which slowly come together to give
the object the "flying saucer" appearance. Then
the object vanishes into the distance at high speed.
is on 160 frames of the film, which represents seven seconds
of viewing time.
England, TIMES, 19 April 1966, page 9
FLYING OBJECT CHASED
FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT
YORK, APRIL 18
sheriff's deputies chased an unidentified flying object
for 85 miles last night from Atwater, Ohio, to Feedom, Pennsylvania.
They covered the distance in a car in less than an hour.
England, TIMES, 22 April 1966, page 7
STUDY FILM OF FLYING OBJECT
of Defence photographic experts are studying prints of a
film of an unidentified flying object taken last month by
a woman from an aircraft 9,000ft. over Staffordshire. The
incident was reported in The Times last week.
possible explanation of the "flying saucer" has
been given by a Yorkshire engineer who says similar pictures
he took were produced by refraction of light through the
double glazing of the aircraft's window.
Joan Oldfield, of Helmshore, maintains that she saw something
before taking her colour ciné film of an object which
looked like a flying saucer while she was flying with her
husband from Manchester to Southampton.
Oldfield's film was shown last night by B.B.C. television
on the programme The World Tomorrow. It was followed
by another film shot by a B.B.C. cameraman through the same
window on the same aircraft on the same route. The window
was convex and distorted at the edge.
commentary explained: "What we filmed was a direct
view of the tailplane of the aircraft seen at an acute angle
to the window glass. At the edge of the window the angle
of the glass changes, breaking the image and making it seem
to float in space. A slight change of the camera angle makes
the image disappear or reappear."
England, TIMES, 13 August 1966, page 7
FLYING OBJECT OVER SYDNEY SUBURB
Aug. 12. - The Royal Australian Air Force said today that
it is investigating reports that an unidentified flying
object has appeared at night for several months over the
Sydney suburb of Turramurra. - Reuter.
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